This phenotype had not been due to inhibition of gene expression, since the wild-type and mRNA upon stimulation with Pam3CSK4 (Fig.?3f). Otub1-deficient B cells display aberrantly activated phenotypes and overproduce the cytokine IL-6, contributing to autoimmunity induction. Thus, maintenance of p100 stability by Otub1 serves as an unusual mechanism of NF-B regulation that prevents autoimmunity. gene Streptozotocin (Zanosar) expression, as suggested by the comparable level of mRNA in the wild-type and Otub1-KO MEFs (Supplementary Fig.?S3a). Furthermore, the Otub1 deficiency also did not affect p100 translation, since similar levels of p100 were detected Streptozotocin (Zanosar) in wild-type and Otub1-BKO B cells when treated with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132 (Supplementary Fig.?S3b). This result further suggested enhanced p100 degradation or processing in Otub1-deficient cells. In further support of this conclusion, p100 was more rapidly lost in Otub1-BKO B cells than in wild-type B cells upon incubation with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (Supplementary Fig.?S3c). To further examine whether Otub1 controlled the degradation or processing (generation of p52) of p100 under steady state, we performed immunoblot assays using whole-cell lysates. In splenic B cells, the Otub1 deficiency reduced the level of p100 and concomitantly increased the level of p52, suggesting upregulated processing (Fig.?2c). Otub1 deficiency in MEFs also markedly reduced the level of p100. Interestingly, however, the Otub1 deficiency did not cause accumulation of p52, although it significantly reduced the p100:p52 ratio (Fig.?2c). This result suggests that the basal loss of p100 in Otub1-KO MEFs was mainly via degradation (no generation of p52). Consistent with the role of p100 in p52/RelB regulation, Streptozotocin (Zanosar) the severe loss of p100 in Otub1-deficient MEFs was associated with nuclear translocation of p52 and RelB (Fig.?2b). The finding that Otub1 deficiency resulted in predominantly p100 degradation in MEFs, while p100 processing in B cells, indicated a cell type difference. However, it is important to note that B cells are constantly stimulated by BAFF in vivo, whereas the MEF culture lacks noncanonical NF-B stimuli, which could also be a factor contributing to the differences in basal p100 processing versus degradation. Notwithstanding, these results demonstrate a crucial role for Otub1 in controlling the processing and degradation of p100. To MUC16 examine the role of Otub1 in regulating signal-induced noncanonical NF-B activation, we stimulated the wild-type and Otub1-deficient B cells with BAFF, a well-defined noncanonical NF-B inducer in B cells. As expected, stimulation of B cells with BAFF induced p100 processing and nuclear translocation of p52 and RelB in wild-type B cells (Fig.?2d). The is a target gene of NF-B, p100 is often accumulated along with canonical NF-B activation.8,10,11 To date, it is unknown how the remarkable stability of p100 is regulated. Our identification of Otub1 as a DUB of p100 prompted us to examine whether Otub1 also controlled the stability of p100 along with canonical NF-B activation. Stimulation of wild-type B cells with several TLR ligands, Pam3CSK4, LPS, and R848, resulted in marked accumulation of p100 (Fig.?3a). Interestingly, Otub1 was also induced along with the induction of p100, at both the protein and mRNA levels (Fig.?3a, b). CoIP assays revealed that the accumulated p100 and Otub1 were physically associated (Fig.?3c). In contrast to Streptozotocin (Zanosar) the canonical NF-B inducers, the noncanonical NF-B inducer BAFF did not induce Otub1 expression or influence Otub1/p100 interaction (Supplementary Fig.?S4). These findings suggested a role for Otub1 in maintaining the stability of the IB-like protein p100 during canonical NF-B activation. Indeed, Otub1 deletion largely prevented the accumulation of p100 protein in B cells stimulated with the TLR ligand Pam3CSK4 and in MEFs stimulated with TNF- (Fig.?3d, e). This phenotype was not due to inhibition of gene expression, since the wild-type and mRNA upon stimulation with Pam3CSK4 (Fig.?3f). Consistent with the role of Otub1 in preventing ubiquitin-dependent p100 degradation, inhibition of proteasome in Otub1-deficient B cells rescued the p100 level and resulted in accumulation of ubiquitinated p100 (Fig.?3g). Therefore, Otub1-mediated p100 deubiquitination plays a crucial role in mediating p100 stability and accumulation Streptozotocin (Zanosar) along with canonical NF-B activation. Open in a separate window Fig. 3 Otub1.