(9%) of participants showed HBsAg positive results. Elmukashfi and colleagues  conducted an observational, cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of HBsAg among healthcare workers in different Public Teaching hospitals in Khartoum State. The study of Abdalla and colleagues  determined the prevalence of HBsAg as (8.2%) among all study participants, in the other study conducted in the Managil province the prevalence was determined as (6.9%). The pooled prevalence was 7.6% (95% CI PQR309 6.12 to 9.13), the heterogeneity was I2?=?0%. Open in a separate window Fig. 3 National prevalence of HBsAg and prevalence among whole population from studies included in the review Regarding HCV; a total of nine research articles were identified establishing the prevalence of HCV antibodies in Sudan [10, 12, 18, 20, 24, 26, 27, 31, 34]. The total sample size of all studies was 8643 participants. The reported prevalence rates among the nine studies ranged from 0.6 up to 23.7% among different study populations. 4/9 (44%) estimated rate of prevalence above 2% (3.1% , 3.4% , 3.5%  and 23.7% ). The overall pooled prevalence was 2.5% (95% CI 1.42 to 3.53), the heterogeneity was high (I2?=?93%) (Fig.?4). The pooled prevalence PQR309 after conducting the sensitivity analysis was 2% (95% CI 0.85 to 3.13). No included study has been found providing prevalence information in normal healthy population. Open in a separate window Fig. 4 National prevalence of HCV antibodies and prevalence among blood donors from studies included in the review Prevalence among blood donors Only two included studies determined the prevalence of HIV antibodies among blood donors [18, 20]. A Among which one is conducted at Kassala Teaching Hospital, Eastern Sudan, HIV prevalence was determined as 3% . The other study was?conducted toward blood donors attending Kosti Teaching Hospital in the White Nile State. Over a period of 4?months (January 2014 to April 2014) a total of 1204 donations were processed. There were only 8 seropositive donors for HIV (0.7%) . The result of meta-analysis (Fig. ?(Fig.2)2) showed overall pooled prevalence of 1 1.8% (95% CI -0.47 to 4.03), the heterogeneity was I2?=?92%. Seven studies were found determining the prevalence of HBV among blood donors in Sudan [18, 20, 24, 27, 28, 35, 36]. Among which two studies were conducted in Khartoum [28, 36], two in Nyala, South Darfur State, Western Sudan [24, 35], one in Kassala, Eastern Sudan , one study in Elobeid  and one in Kosti . One study  was found concerned with the prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection therefore no determination about the HBsAg was found. Moreover, another study  only present data of prevalence of co-infection of Rabbit Polyclonal to Collagen V alpha2 HBV and HCV among participants, these studies will be reviewed in their corresponding sections. The prevalence described in the remaining five studies ranges from 3.5 to 15.8%. The pooled prevalence was 6.9% (95% CI 4.89 to 8.97), the heterogeneity was I2?=?82%. Four studies were identified providing prevalence data of HCV antibodies among blood donors in Sudan [18, 20, 24, 27], two studies were carried out in Elobeid and Kosti cities reporting prevalence of (3.5%) and (3.4%), respectively [20, 27], the other two studies were conducted in Nyala, South Darfur State, Western Sudan , and Kassala, Eastern Sudan , the percent prevalence of the virus in the two studies was (0.6) and (3.1%), respectively. The pooled prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 0.97 to 4.21), the heterogeneity was I2?=?88% (Fig. ?(Fig.44). Prevalence among pregnant women Five studies reported HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Sudan, one study was conducted in Kassala, Eastern Sudan , three in Khartoum State [11, PQR309 12, 14], and one in Gadarif State . The prevalence rates ranged from 0 to 1 1.4%. The result of meta-analysis showed overall pooled prevalence of 0.4% (95% CI 0.14 to 0.66), the heterogeneity was I2?=?56%. Two studies have been found concerned of the prevalence of HBsAg among pregnant women in Sudan; Elsheikh and colleagues study was a cross sectional conducted at Omdurman maternity hospital in Khartoum State in 2007 . HBsAg was detected in 41 (5.6%) out of 728 tested women. Later on, in 2014, 20 (5.1%) out of 396 tested pregnant women were concluded to be positive for HBsAg in the study of Osman and colleagues . The pooled prevalence was 5.5% (95% CI 4.13 to 6.80), the heterogeneity was I2?=?0%. The same two studies have been identified establishing the prevalence.