December 5, 2023

Other studies showed that CIN85/RukL associated with the Golgi complex and could, therefore, take part in trafficking of receptors (27)

Other studies showed that CIN85/RukL associated with the Golgi complex and could, therefore, take part in trafficking of receptors (27). increased accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and expression of CIN85/RukL in podocytes. In cultured murine podocytes CD2AP deficiency prospects to an early ubiquitination of nephrin and podocin after activation with fibroblast growth factor-4. Binding assays with different CIN85/Ruk isoforms and mutants showed that nephrin and podocin are binding to the coiled-coil domain name of CIN85/RukL. We found that in the presence of CIN85/RukL, which is usually involved in down-regulation of receptor-tyrosine kinases, nephrin is usually internalized after activation with fibroblast growth factor-4. Interestingly, coexpression of CIN85/RukL with CD2AP led to a decreased binding of CIN85/RukL to nephrin and podocin, which indicates a functional competition between CD2AP and CIN85/RukL. Our results support a novel role for CIN85/RukL in slit diaphragm turnover and proteinuria. (6, 7). There is cumulating evidence that nephrin is usually a signaling receptor molecule; nephrin forms with podocin and Neph1 a protein complex within the lipid raft that structurally functions HO-1-IN-1 hydrochloride as a transmembrane receptor (8). The intracellular human nephrin C terminus has several putative tyrosine phosphorylation sites that can be phosphorylated by the Src kinase Fyn. This receptor complex has been shown to interact with several protein kinases including Fyn, Yes, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase as well as with several adaptor proteins HO-1-IN-1 hydrochloride like Nck, Grb2,2 and Crk (9, 10). A scaffolding protein that interacts with the nephrin-receptor complex HO-1-IN-1 hydrochloride is the cytoplasmic adaptor protein CD2AP, which is considered to play an important role in the maintenance of the slit diaphragm. Mice deficient for CD2AP are given birth to healthy but develop a quick onset nephrotic syndrome at 3 weeks of age and pass away of renal failure at 6 weeks after birth (11). Up to now it is completely unclear why the CD2AP?/? mice are given birth to healthy with intact slit diaphragms and develop a significant proteinuria within a few days. Moreover, we previously explained the unusual phenotype in these mice that this damage occurs synchronized and issues all podocytes at the same time (12). A different member of the same adaptor protein family known as CIN85/RukL displays high sequence (54%) and structural similarities to CD2AP (13). Much like CD2AP, CIN85/RukL contains three SH3 domains and a coiled-coil domain name but is usually missing the actin binding sites of CD2AP. Due to alternative splicing and different promoters, multiple CIN85/Ruk Rabbit Polyclonal to CLIP1 isoforms were recognized in cell lines of various tissue origins (14). We could previously show that the balance of CD2AP and CIN85/RukL determines receptor-tyrosine kinase signaling response in podocytes and that this prospects to a proapoptotic shift in the intracellular signaling signatures in response to growth factor stimulations (12). These data give an explanation why CD2AP?/? podocytes are more susceptible to cell stress and have a significantly increased rate of apoptosis after activation with transforming growth factor- (15); however, this would only partially explain the quick synchronized onset of proteinuria that issues all glomeruli. In this manuscript we hypothesized that this up-regulation of CIN85/RukL that we detected previously in differentiating CD2AP?/? podocytes as well as in CD2AP?/? glomeruli (12) contributes to destabilization of the slit diaphragm complex. CIN85/RukL function was previously linked to endophilin-dependent and ubiquitin-mediated internalization of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (16). Ubiquitination is an emerging mechanism implicated in a variety of cellular functions like intracellular trafficking, gene transcription, DNA repair, and replication (17, 18). A selective reduction of extracellular nephrin in IgA nephropathy and also for podocin in other renal damages was observed (19, 20). Recently, it was shown that expression of ubiquitin and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 correlates HO-1-IN-1 hydrochloride with an internalization and down-regulation of nephrin (21). In this study we demonstrate that CIN85/RukL is usually a novel binding partner of nephrin and podocin and regulates the internalization of the slit diaphragm complex. Our findings support a molecular competition between CIN85/RukL and CD2AP for binding to nephrin and podocin and lead us to hypothesize that a dynamic interplay between nephrin and podocin with these two adaptor molecules orchestrates the stability and turnover of the slit diaphragm. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Antibodies and Cytokines Main antibodies that were utilized for Western blotting, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescence studies were rabbit.